Communities of Practice in the Public Sector: Opportunities for constructive learning

“We need others to complement and develop our own expertise.”
― Etienne Wenger, Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge

Recently, the public sector has adapted significantly to tackle emerging global socio-economic challenges. These challenges, such as global health crises, rapid technological advancements, income distribution inequalities, limited access to services, unemployment, political instability, and environmental degradation, have become pivotal in shaping new policy interventions.

In the post-pandemic scenario, the public sector’s effectiveness heavily relies on addressing and integrating people’s concerns into its organizational framework. In this view, while the digitization of services has been a prominent aspect of the public sector’s response to these challenges, leveraging technology’s power requires improvements in effective skill-updating methods along with the establishment of strong partnerships among different stakeholders.

Communities of practice are increasingly being embraced across diverse sectors of the public domain as a means to improve communication among employees in various roles, offering increased capability for learning and innovation, as well as a level of coordination not afforded by current structures. Some are tailored to keep interested individuals informed, while others prioritize the advancement of collaborative work initiatives.

This article delves deeper into the significance of Communities of Practice and sharing knowledge in the public sector.

Photo by Shane Rounce on Unsplash

What is a Community of Practice (CoP)?

While the term “community of practice” may be relatively recent, the idea it represents has been around for a long time. This concept gives us a useful way to think about learning and knowledge becoming more and more important for improving how things work in different areas over the years. Social scientists have used different versions of this idea for analysis. However, the concept originates from learning theory indicating the constant process of learning through involvement.

Based on this idea and in today’s knowledge-driven economy, both private and public institutions diligently capitalize on this reality. They employ various organizational forms, such as cross-functional teams, customer- or product-focused business units, and work groups, to capture and disseminate ideas and know-how complementing them with community of practice to amplify knowledge sharing, learning, and change.

A community of practice (CoP) is a group of people with a shared interest or concern who come together to achieve individual and group goals. CoPs often focus on sharing best practices and creating new knowledge to advance a professional field. Regular interaction is crucial, with many relying on face-to-face meetings and web-based tools. CoPs form through collective learning in a shared domain. Notably, a community of practice is more than just a group of friends; it involves a shared identity, joint activities, and a shared practice, distinguishing it from other types of communities. At the same time, they don’t substitute qualifications or training programmes; instead, they bolster continuous learning and the capacity to comprehend how others are currently implementing practices.

While the shared experience of individuals is undoubtedly valuable, communities of practice also play a crucial role in innovation and problem-solving. Within these communities, members actively create novel practices, generate new knowledge, delineate unexplored territories, and cultivate a collective and strategic voice in topics ranging from performance management to policy work.

Communities of Practice (CoP): enabling innovation in the public sector

Communities of practice not only enhance knowledge sharing and collaboration within the public sector but also serve as catalysts for innovation. By cultivating a culture that values creativity, experimentation, and continuous improvement, CoPs contribute significantly to the public sector’s ability to address challenges and deliver innovative solutions to the communities they serve.

In particular:

  1. Knowledge Sharing for Innovation:
    • CoPs create a collaborative space where public sector professionals can share insights, experiences, and best practices.
    • This knowledge-sharing culture serves as a fertile ground for innovation by exposing individuals to diverse perspectives and ideas.
  2. Cross-Pollination of Ideas:
    • CoPs often bring together individuals from various departments or agencies, facilitating the cross-pollination of ideas.
    • This interdisciplinary collaboration sparks innovative thinking and helps break down traditional departmental silos.
  3. Testbed for New Ideas:
    • CoPs provide a supportive environment for members to test and refine innovative concepts before broader implementation.
    • This testing ground allows for experimentation and learning from both successes and failures.
  4. Cultivating a Culture of Innovation:
    • Regular interactions within CoPs contribute to the development of a culture that values and promotes innovation.
    • Members are encouraged to think creatively, explore new approaches, and contribute to the overall improvement of public sector processes.
  5. Adopting Best Practices:
    • CoPs focus on sharing and implementing best practices, which often involve innovative methods or technologies.
    • By adopting these best practices, public sector entities can improve efficiency and service delivery through innovation.
  6. Problem-Solving through Collaboration:
    • The collaborative nature of CoPs is particularly beneficial for tackling complex challenges that require innovative solutions.
    • The collective intelligence and diverse perspectives within CoPs enhance problem-solving capabilities.
  7. Encouraging Risk-Taking:
    • CoPs provide a safe space for members to share and discuss innovative ideas, encouraging a culture that embraces calculated risk-taking.
    • This is essential for fostering an environment where public sector employees feel empowered to propose and experiment with innovative solutions.
  8. Learning from Failure:
    • CoPs recognize that innovation often involves a degree of experimentation and potential failure.
    • By sharing experiences, including failures, members can collectively learn valuable lessons and refine their innovative approaches.
  9. Staying Ahead of Emerging Trends:
    • CoPs facilitate discussions on emerging trends, technologies, and best practices within the public sector and related industries.
    • This awareness ensures that public sector professionals stay informed and can proactively adopt innovative strategies.
  10. Building a Network of Innovators:
    • CoPs create a network of individuals passionate about innovation, fostering a community of like-minded professionals.
    • This network becomes a valuable resource for seeking advice, sharing insights, and collaborating on innovative projects.

At the same time, the development of Communities of Practice in the public sector can be attributed to several challenges. Firstly, despite their longstanding existence over centuries, the terminology associated with communities of practice has only recently gained recognition within the public sector. Secondly, only a handful of forward-thinking government entities have actively embraced and fostered the development of these communities. Thirdly, the inherent difficulty lies in building and sustaining communities of practice within the public sector, coupled with the challenge of integrating them seamlessly into the broader organizational framework. The organic, spontaneous, and informal nature of these communities makes them resistant to traditional supervision and external interference, presenting a unique set of challenges for implementation within public sector structures. Overcoming these challenges is crucial for harnessing the benefits of communities of practice and promoting knowledge sharing, collaboration, and innovation within the public sector.

Building a successful Community of Practice (CoP)

The cornerstone of thriving communities of practice lies in having a suitable leadership infrastructure capable of providing guidance, support, and ongoing rejuvenation for the community initiative. In general, leadership emerges as the pivotal factor for the successful engagement and effectiveness of a community. It plays a fundamental role in overcoming common challenges faced by boundary-spanning communities, such as entrenched agency silos, a lack of administrative mandates or support, and the absence of metrics for assessing cross-agency outcomes. Several key leadership roles stand out as particularly critical, including community coordinators for each community, a dedicated support team for community-based initiatives, and an overarching executive sponsor.

Join the EntrePubl CoP

EntrePubl aims to develop an innovative learner-centred training path to enable the development of digital and entrepreneurial competences for VET trainers and public sector employees, suitable for hybrid flexible training. Supported by EntreComp and DigComp frameworks, our focus is on instilling an entrepreneurial mindset in public sector employees, leveraging digital solutions for professional development.

That’s why the EntrePubl project partners decided to create its Community of Practice space. You can now join the official home of the Public Sector Employee Community Corner. This LinkedIn group offers a hub for collaboration, learning, and growth for VET trainers and public sector professionals.


McDonald, J. (2015). Communities of Practice. Editor(s): James D. Wright, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), Elsevier, pp. 328-331.

Smith, A. E. (2016). Knowledge by Association: Communities of Practice in Public Management. Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 3 (FALL 2016), pp. 655-689.

Snyder W. M.; E. Wenger; X. de Sousa Briggs (2023). Communities of practice in government: Leveraging knowledge for performance. The Public Manager, Winter 2003-2004, v32:4, pp. 17-21.

n.d., Creating Communities of Practice, available at, retrieved at 10.02.2024.